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271 274 and 275 of Punjab Land Administration Manual

274 (2) Reform of patwari and kanungo agency. “ the efficiency of such a special department, as we have proposed will depend mainly on the completeness and accuracy with which the agricultural vital, and economic statistics with which it has to deal are collected in each village and compiled in each sub division and district throughout the country” * * * * “ the revenue system in the greater part of British India is such as o present unrivalled means of ascertaining, in the fullest manner, all necessary facts relating to agriculture, and to the different incidents of landed tenures in every village; but those means gave nowhere een completely utilized and made as efficient as they might be. We recommend that the body of village accountants should everywhere be put on a sound and satisfactory footing as responsible public officers, with a clearly defined set duties, but with their own villages.” “* * * *” over the villages accountants there should be a staff of active sub-officers employed in keeping them to their duty, inspecting their work, visiting each village in turn, and checking the accuracy of all the items recorded concerning it.”

274  (3) appointment of revenue assistant in each district. “ above these there should be special officer in every district who would be, as a rule, of the rank  of deputy collector, and whose nail or only duty should be to take charge of all matters connected with the economic condition and well-being of the people. He would test and compile the agricultural returns and examine the market prices and ascertain from these and other data the relative value of each year’s crop, according as it is below or above the average. From such a continuous record of the harvests he would obtain data for judging weather the landed classes were in the depressed or a prosperous condition, and how far they were prepared to meet a climates season. It would be this object to obtain similar information as to all sections of the population, and to learn what are the causes of depression, and what classes would be the first to succumb under the pressure of declare and high prices. The accurate regulation of vital statistical, and the investigation of the causes of any abnormal mortality, would lie within his province and he would be the gainer of the health officer of the district for the purpose of scrutinizing the record of births and deaths. The extent of the good stocks, the ebb and flow of local trade, the current rate of interest charged on loans to different classes, the deficient or superabundant supply of any kinds of labour and the customary wages paid to each kind, these and other kinds of labour and the customary wages paid to each kind, these and other kindred topics on which information is at present far from precise, would fall within the scope of his enquiries. These officer, while generally subordinate to the collector, would be specially under the orders of the agricultural Department in respect of the system on which their returns are to be prepared and checked.

274. (4) Appointment of Director of Agriculture in each province. ”A Director of agriculture should be appointed in each province as executive head of this Department, chosen for his knowledge of the condition of the people and particularly of the agricultural classes. He would directly control the special statistical officers, and would be the adviser of the local government on all matters relating to agriculture and statistics. In ordinary times he would discharge these duties and superintend all measures designed to improve the agriculture of the country : and in times of famine he would be the officer responsible for warning the government as to the agricultural outlook and for preparing such a forecast as should guide it in issuing instructions and setting on foot measures of relief.”

274.Introduction of reforms in Punjab. The measures proposed by the commission therefore embraced

(a)  the reform of the patwari staff;

(b)  the provision of a sufficient staff of supervisor or kanungos;

(c)  the appointment of a revenue assistant in each district;

(d)  the appointment of a director of agriculture in each province.

It fell to colonel wace, first as settlement commissioner and later as financial commissioner ,to carry out these reforms a task which he welcomed with enthusiasm . to enable him to deal with the matter effectively he was appointed in 1882 director of agriculture while retaining the post of settlement commissioner . in 1883 a revenue assistant was appointed in each district except simla. In the same year colonel wace prepared a scheme for the reorganization of the kanungo staff. Which was sanctioned with some modifications next year, and carried out in 1885. Hitherto, the estab lishment in each district had consisted of a sadar kanungo at headquarters on Rs 60 per mensem, and a kanungo on Rs. 25 with an assistant of rs. 15 of each tahsil.the staff was now doubled. The kanungo at the tahsil head quarters became the office kanungo and a staff of  field kanungos was provided to supervise the patwaris work in their villages. The pay and prospects of kanungos were much improved. A director of land records was appointed in 1885.

Hon'ble Revenue Minister


Special Chief Secretary, Department of Revenue, Rehabilitation and Disaster Management

Sh.  K A P Sinha, IAS

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