317.Harvest inspections. It is one of the chief duties of a patwari spect the crops of each harvest field by field before they are cut. This inspection is known as the girdawari. It usually begins on 1st October for the kharif, and on 1st march, for the rabi, harvest, but the commissioner of the division can change these dates after consultating with the director of land records when the special circumstances of any district make others more suitable. When for any reason the ripening of the crop is later than usual the deputy commissioner may postpone the inspection for a period not exceeding fifteen days. A few crops, chiefly melons and tobacco, are sown very alte in the rabi season and are gathered some time.
After the other crops of that harvest are got in. in village where these extra Rabi crops are grown a separate inspection of them is made about the middle of April. In some districts a crop inspection intermediate between the kharif and the Arabi Girdawati has been found necessary.
318. Object of harvest inspections - The object of harvest inspections is to collect accurate information regarding-
(b) changes in rights, rents and possession of land,
(c) amendments required iln the village map.
The first is indispensable for the assessment and collection of land revenue in a province where half the land is cultivated by the owners and the greater part of the remaining half by tenants paying rent kind; the second and third are aids to the maintenance of a true records of rights in the soil. Only such changes need be noted in the harvest inspection register as must under the rules be embodied in the record of rights. Others should be entered in the patwari’s diary.
320. Record of ailed crops essential. It is essential to distinguish betwwen crops which ripen and those which fail. The latter are classed as “ kharaba” the instruction regarding which as follows:-
“when crop is sown and dries up, or is destroyed by calamity, it should be returned as kharaba. Very careful attention must be given to partially failed crops, that is, crops if which the yield appears to be much below average. When the actual yield as a whole of the crop grown in one khasra number no. is estimated by careful inspection to be not more than 75 percent of the usual or average yield, then a deduction from the whole area of the crop should be made ; for example, an inferior filed of wheat, area 4 kanals, may be returned as, but this should only be done when the actual yield of the whole crop ils estimated to be not more than 75 per cent of the average, and the kharaba allowed should be only as much as is necessary to raise the shole crop of the area returned as under crop to the average of an ordinary harvest. The average yield is that adopted by the settlement officer at the prvious settlement for the assessment circle in which the village is included, unless some other yield has been specially perscribed in the dastur-ul-amal or else-where. The crops for which average yields are not fixed at settlement are generally unimportant. The revenue officials concerned should judge for themselves what yield should be regarded as separately in different portains of one shasra number the above procedure should be applied separately to each of such distinct crops. Deduction for kharaba made under this instruction should, unless some other special local scale has been prescribed by proper authority, be enteed as far as is reasonable practicable in accordance with the following scale taking 16 annas as the average yield of a crop:-
yield more than 12 annas no deduction
yield more than 8 annas but duduct ¼ of the sown area.
not more than 12 annas.
Yield more than 4 annas but
Not more than 8 annas deduct ½ of the sown area.
Yield not more than 4 annas deduct whole sown area.
Jowar which fails in the year should be entered not as “ jowar kharaba” but as ‘chari pukhata’ the same details should be given for failed crops as for matured crops.
321. Khababa in canal colonies. In the lands irrigated by the upper and lower chenab. Upper and lower jhelum and lower bari doab canals, and in lands under fluctuating assessment in some tracts which have recently been resetted, new rule for the record of kharaba have been introduced. Tables showing the ‘’standard’’yield of the croqs are prepared. A croq which reaches that standard is called a sixteeen-anna crop. Whether the standard is to represent an ‘’average ‘’ crop or a ‘’ good’’ crop can hardly be said to have been yet decided. When seed fails altogether to germinate or the crop is worse than a four-anna one, the whole area is returned as kharaba. When it is equal to, or better than a four-anna, but wores than an eight-anna crop half is entered as kharaba; no education is allowed when it is equal to or beter than, an eight anna crop.
322. Checking of kharaba. The entry of kharba is a matter which ra-quires both honesty and sound judgment on the part of the recorder, and this branch of the patwari’s work should be carefully tested by all supervs-ing officers. But where the record has been made with care and is generally sound, it is well to refrain from making petty alternations here an dthere which affect but slightly the main result. More than ordinarly care is of course required in tracts under fluctuating assessment, where the amoun to fthe demand at each harvest depends directly on the area of matured crop. There are specail rules as to the check to be exercised over the record of kharaba in such cases.
323. The khasra-girdawari. Entries respecting uncultivated soils. The harvest inspection book is known as the khasra girdwari; in this register and in the record of rights uncultivated land is classified as banjar jadid banjar kadim and ghair-mumkin. The exact meaning pf each of these terms is explained in the 267th paragraph of the settlement manual. Lan dwhich is not under crop. But which has not lain fallow long enough( e.g. for four harvests) to be described as banjar jadild, is called khali (empty)
324. Taradaddi. By a fefinement, which serves no very useful purposes, another class is recognised under the name of taradaddi, i.e. under tillage. This term is applied to a field which bears no crop ceonging to be harvest under inspection, but “has been ploghed for the next harvest, or is occupied by trees or plains, which will fruit in the coming harvest.” Examples are fields of cotton or cane in the rabi. Cane which is planted about march, and occupies the ground for ten or eleven months, is treated for statistical purposes as a kharif crop. Land is ploughed for cotton, another kharifstaple, in the cold weather, and, where irrigation is available, the sowings also often take palce before the rabi crops are cut. Orchars which fruit in spring are shown as taradaddi on the kharif.
325. Classification of crops and cultivated soils. The terms barani, sailab, abi, chani, nahro, by which cultivated fields, and the crops grown on them are distinguished are explianed in the 259th paragraph of the settlement manual. Where the moisture on which the crop depends is derived from a double source, two of these terms may have to be combined, e.g. chani-nahro, chahi-sailab.(see paragraph 442 and 451 of the settlement manual.) fields are classified according to their permanent characters and crops according to the actual facts of their cultivation in theharvest under insepction. For example, chahi fields are often put uner barani crops, and the converse sometimes happens(see paragraph 260 of the settlement manual)
326. Entries relating of wells. As it is important to have a record of wells at work and out of use a remark showing how the matter stands os entered against each field in which a well is suited. When a new well has been sunk the fact is noted.
327. Entries of owners and tenants. There are columns in the harvest insepction register in which to show the ownership and cultivating occupancy of every field. Changes should be noted with care. It is only through the khasra girdwari that alterations in tenancies-at-well find their way into the record of rights.
359(a). The patwari should intimate to the gram panchyat concerned, within 15 days of finishing the girdawari, the following changes of cultivating tenancy made by him in khasra girdawari so that the latter should inform the persons concerned about these changes :-
(1) when there is a change in cultivation from a tenant that the landlord;
(2) when there is an addition of a tenant to the existing tenant;
(3) where there are two or more than two tenants and the name of one or more tenants is removed from entry in the khasra gidwari.”
328. Changes In Fields. Where one filed has been divided into two, or the boundry of a field has from any cause undergone change, the patwari should make a rough measurement sufficient for the crop entries, and put a red cross opposite the filed number in the remarks column to remind him that a correction of the village map is required.
329. The crop abstract. When all the entries for a village finished. The toals for each frop must be made out and entered in the crop abstract of the estate before work is started in another village. The uses of this very important statement will be descrived in a later chapter(see chapter xvi of this manual paragraph 307 of the settlement manual and paragraph 7 of the financial commissioner’s standing order no. 22) a statement in the same form os the chief of the sateistical returns included in the village revenue register or note-book. As soon as the crop abstract has been checked and signed by the filed kanungo, the patwari copies the entries into the corresponding form in this reglister, and sends the original to the tahsil. Promotitude in filling these returns is a matter of prime necessity, if any question regarding the suspension of any part of the land revenue demand is likely to arise. The kharif statements should, if possible, all reach the tahsil by the 1st november, the rabi statements by the 1st of april, and the extra rabi stements by the 1st of june.
288. Duty of kanungos as regards crop inspections. Revenue officials of all grades should be made to understand the importance of harvest inspections in land administaration. While the dirdwari is going on filed kanungos of courosoe spend the whole of their time in checking it. In the gilrdwari months the tours mande by the district kanungo should be dovoted to the same work. In ordinary insepctions the field kanungo accompanies the district kanungo, but during the girdwari the former has to accomplish so much in a short period that the latter is forbidden to call for his attendence.(see paragraph 60 of financial commissions’s standing order no. 19)
289. Duty of tahsildar and naib-tahsildars. The responsibility of tahsildars and naib-tahsildars should be steadily enforced. The standard jto aim at is the inseption of every estate by one or other of these officers at each harvest before the crops are cut. But at present this is a counsel of perfection. Both officers cannot be in camp at once, and the harvests last for too short a time to admit of theresults being observed and the records of them checked in every village. It is far better that the girdwari in one or two estates in each circle should be thoroughly checked than that a nominal insepction of it should be made in every village. The tahsildar and his deputy should so lay out theirwork that no part of their repective changes remains unvisited. They should have a clear idea of the state of the crops in every assessment circle and in all important villages, and special attention sholud be given to estes in which suspention of the demand is likely to be required. In bad seasons other work must give way to a thorough examination of the results of each harvest while it is still standiong on the ground.
290. Duty of superior revenue officials. The revenue assistant must be on tour throughout the girdwari months, and must then given most of his time to the checking of harvest inspection work. The deputy commissioner should, if posible, help him by sending at the same time into camp some other mamber or members of the headquaters staff. In times of drought especially, care must be taken to utilize assistant and extra assistant commissioners to the fullest extent compatible with the carrying out of such judicial and executive work as must be done at headquaters.
291. Duty of deputy commissioner. The deputy commissioner’s own part does not consist so much in checking a few entries in harvest inspection regilsters in the field, which is all he could possibly accomlish, as in lying out the work of his subordinates, and obtaining a good general idea of the results of the harvest in the different parts of his charge by viewing the standing crops and examinig the crop returns of the villages.