(Replaces Standing Order No.43, Original Issue, dated 19th October,1909)
17.1 Introductory - The orders of the Government of India as to the preparation of Gazetteers will be found in paragraph 836 of the Land Administration Manual. The revision of Gazetteers has now been entrusted to a separate organization under the supervision and control of the State Editor, Gazetteers, who undertakes the work of revising Gazetteers under the administrative control of the Financial Commissioner, Revenue. The latest instructions of the Government of India regarding the revision of Gzetteers are contained in their letter No.F.23-1/55.C-1(A) dated 17th November 1956. Besides making the gazetteers more detailed and comprehensive, the new instructions provide for only one volume of the gazetteers for both descriptive and statistical matter instead of having two separate volumes 'A' and 'B' as provided in paragraph 836 of the Land Administration Manual.
17.2 Plan of Gazetters - The District Gazetters will have 19 chapters. To ensure "uniformity of form contents and standard", the Government of India laid down chapter headings and contents "providing", however, "room for variations and additions to meet the local or special needs." This pattern is detailed hereunder :-
(a) Introductory :-
(i) Origin of the name of the district.
(ii) Location, general boundaries, total area and population of the district.
(iii) History of the district as an administrative unit and the charges in its component parts;
(iv) Sub-Divisions, Tahsils and Thanas.
Note – For the sake of convenience a general reference may be made these subjects in the chapter of "General Administration".
(b) Topography :-
(i) Natural Divisions, Elevation, configuration etc.
(ii) Hills; Mountain system to which they belong, main peaks, heigh situation, vegetation etc.
(iii) Plateaus and plains; Variations in sea level and lines of natural drainage ;
(c) River System and Water Resources –
(i) Main Rivers and Tributaries and Canals
(ii) Mineral Resources.
(d) Geology –
(i) Geological Formation ;
(ii) Mineral Resources;
(f) Fauna –
(g) Climate –
(i) Climatic divisions and seasons and their duration;
(ii) Temprature and humidity
(iii) Rainfall ;
(iv) Atmospheric pressure and winds.
Note – The section headings are given only to indicate the general scope of the subject and the State Editors might effect such changes as they consider necessary to present local history in the proper light. The study should be based on standard works, due attention being paid to recent advances in historical research . Adequate attention should be paid to the pre-British period and the post-Mutiny developments which have not received adequate attention in the old Gazetters. Matters relating to economic, social and cultural life should receive as much attention as political history. Particular regard should be had to public life and popular movements of the 19th century which have received scant attention in the past. In the treatment of events after the First world war, there is need for very great objectivity and the account should be limited to a narration of well-accepted facts. Since the history of India as a whole will be dealt with at length in the Central Gazetters, the District Gazetters should aim at highlighing the local history and local manifetation of all India events. Papers in the Local Record Rooms, family archives and papers with religious and other institutions may be utilised to the extent resources permit. Such of those papers as can well go in with the Gazetters may be given in the Appendix. But many documents of great historical value, which cannot appropriately be included in the Gazetters, may come to light in the course of the work on the Gazetters. The attention of the State Government may be drawn to them to secure their publication outside the Gazetters Scheme
(a) Population :-
(i) Total population :
Emigration and immigration.
(ii) Distribution of population between rural and
(a) Religion and Caste.
(b) Social life :-
(i) Property and Inheritence;
(ii) Marriages and morals :
Birth and Death Ceremonies.
(iii) Home Life –
Types of Dwellings.
Furniture and Decoration.
Dress and Ornaments.
(iv) Communal Life –
Fairs and Festivals.
Folk Songs and Cultural Life.
Games and Recreations.
Note – It was the practice of the old Gazetters to deal with the manners, customs and belies of each caste and tribe at length. A briefer treatment would appear to be adepate for the present purpose. Those who are interested inf urther details can consult the old Gazeteers and books on social anthropology. Castes and tribes which are culturally distinct and unique may, however, require fuller treatment. The old Gazeteers also overstressed the prevalence of animistic beliefs and survivals of old customs and rituals. Valuable as these studies are they do not give a correct picture of the people as a shole. Sufficient attention should be paid to the influence of higher religious ideas and also to the new religious and social reform movements.
AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION
(a) Land Reclamation and Utilisation -
(i) Land utilisation.
(ii) Cultivable waste.
(iii) Reclamation of Waterlogged Areas, Swa-
mps , etc.
(b) Irrigation –
(i) Irrigation facilities -
Tube-wells and pumping sets.
(c) Agriculture including Horticulture –
(i) Set-up and Activities of the Agriculture
(ii) Soils, climate and crops -
Major and subsidary crops.
Fruit crops and gardens.
(iii) Improved Agricultural Practices;
(iv) Crop competition scheme;
(v) Agricultural Co-operatives -
(1) Primary Agricultural Credit-Service
(2) Agricultural Non-credit societies :
Co-operative Marketing Societies
Co-operative Farming Societies
(vi) Programme of Scientific Agriculture-
Fertilizers and Manures.
Local Manurial resources.
Rural Compost and Cattle Dunge Manure.
Town Compost and Sewage Utilization
(vii) Agriculture diseases and Pests and Obnox-
(d) Animal Husbandry and Fishries –
(i) Animal Health and Breeding Wings.
Animal Health Wing.
Animal Breeding Wing.
Intensive Cattle Development Project Centre
Development of Gaushalls.
Cattle Faris and Shows.
Control of Menance of Wild and Stray Catt-
(ii) Area under Fodder Crops;
(iii) Dairy Farming;
(iv) Sheep Breeding;
(v) Poultry Farming;
(vi) Piggery ;
(viii) Animal Diseases and Veterniary Hospitals.
(e) Forestry -
(i) Importance of Forestry in the economey of the District;
(ii) Forest produce.
Note – Particular attention may be paid to institutions formed for exploiting on a larger scale , agricultural, forest and animal husbandry resources, e.g. coffee and tea plantation. Special attention may also be paid to co-operation in the production and marketing of agriculture products.
(a) Old time Industries and Industrial Development.
(b) State Aid to Industries.
(c) Industrial Training.
(d) Industrial areas and Estates.
(e) Sources of Power.
(f) Growth and Development of Industry.
(g) Industries and Manufactures of the District –
(i) Large Scale Industries ;
(ii) Small-Scale Industreis ;
(iii) Village/Cottage Industries and Handicrafts;
(iv) Industrial Arts;
(h) Industrial Potential and Plans for future Development.
(i) Role of Industrial Co-operatives.
(j) Labour and Employers' Organisations.
Note – In respect of each of the Industries, the following particulars may be given; the location of the factories, when they were started bumber of persons employed, capital investment, wages, sources of supply of raw material, significant features in the manufacturing process, and finished products and their marketing. More important of the Industries may be considered individually, while the others may be treated under appropriate groups. Special mention may be made of State or Municipal management of industris and also of co-operative ownership and management of industries. Under the head "Ïndustrial Arts", the manufacture of articles which transcend purely utility considerations and reach the realm of art may be mentioned.
BANKING, TRADE AND COMMERCE
(A) Banking and Finance -
(a) History of Indigenous Banking.
(b) General credit facilities :-
(i) Indebtedness, Rural and Urban;
(ii) Role of private money-lenders and financers;
(iii) Government and Semi-Government credit
(iv) Joint Stock Bank;
(v) Other loan and investment companies;
(vi) Co-operative credit;
(c) Insurance and Small Savings.
(d) Currency and Coinage.
(B) Trade and Commerce –
(a) Course of a Trade.
(b) Trade Centres –
(i) Regulated and Unregulated Markets.
(ii) Fairs Melas and Other Rural Marketing Centres.
(c) Co-operation in Trade –
(i) Co-operative Marketing.
(ii) Co-operative Consumers Stores.
(d) State Trading.
(e) Merchants and Consumers Associations and Organs for Dissemination of Trade News.
(f) Wieghts and Measures.
(g) Storage and Warehousing.
(a) Old tune trade routes and highways and modes of conveyance.
(b) Road Transport ;
(i) Classification of Roads -
District Major Roads.
District Minor Roads.
(ii) Vehicles and Conveyances –
(iii) Public and Private Transport
(c) Railways :
Rail Road Competition.
(d) Waterways, Ferries and Bridges.
(e) Air Transport
(f) Travel and Tourist Facilities ;
Dak Bungalows and Rest Houses.
(g) Posts, Telegraphs and Telephones.
(h) Radio and Wireless Stations.
(i) Organisations of Owners and Employees in the Field of Transport and Communications.
(a) Public Administration –
State, Central and Local Government Services.
Public Employees Organisation.
(c) Learned Professionals –
Medical and Health Services.
(d) Personal and Domestic Services –
(e) Miscellaneous Services –
(a) Livelihood Pattern and General Level of Prices and Wages and Standard of Living.
(b) Employment situation –
Employment Market Information Scheme.
Vocational Guidance Scheme.
(c) Planning and Community Development.
(a) Historical Background and Divisions of the District Administrative Divisions.
(b) District Authorities –
Tehsildars and staff.
(c) Development Organisation.
(d) Panchyati Raj –
(e) General Arrangement for disposal of Business-
Public Greievances Officer.
Civil Defence Controller.
(f) District Committees.
(g) Other Important Officers –
(h) Other State and Central Government Officers.
(a) Land Revenue Administration –
(i) History of Land Revenue Assessment and Management.
(ii) Collection of Land Revenue.
(iii) Organisation for purposes of Land Administration.
(iv) Income from Land Revenue and Special Cesses.
(b) Land Reforms –
(i) Security of Land Tenures.
(ii) Utilisation of Lands.
(iii) Consolidation of Holdings.
(iv) Agrarian movements, Bhoodan, peasent or-
(v) Rural wages and condition of agricultural
(c) Other sources of Revenue, State and Central.
LAW AND ORDER AND JUSTICE
(a) Incidence of Crime in District.
(b) History and Organisation of Police –
Organisation of Police.
Punjab Armed Police and Mounted Police.
Criminal Investigation Department.
Police Wireless Station.
Excise Police Staff.
Punjab Home Guards.
(c) Jails and Lock-ups –
(i) Location of Jails and Lock ups and prison organisations.
(ii) Prison discipline.
(iii) Welfare of Prisoners : Vocational Training, educational facilities, recreation, etc.;
(iv) District Crime Prevention Officer.
(v) Organisation of Civil and Criminal Courts.
(vi) Bar Associations.
(a) Public Works Department.
(b) Public Relation Department.
(c) Co-operative Department.
(d) Food and Supplies Department.
(e) Finance Department
(f) Planning Department
(g) Language Department
Note – The arrangement should follow the organisational pattren of
each State. In view of the recommendations of the Second State Editors conference, the scope of the chapter is limited to a consideration of the activities of those departments whose work has not been reviewed in other chapters.
(a) Evolution of Local Government in the District.
(b) Organisation and Structure.
Functions and Duties of Municipal Committees.
(c) Town Planning and Housing.
(d) Panchayati Raj; its organisation and structure;
powers and duties; financial resources; special acheivements, if any ; etc.
EDUCTION AND CULTURE
(a) Historical Background : Centres of Learning in ancient, medieval and early modern time. Beginnings of Westren Education and pioneer work, done in the district.
(b) Literacy and Educational Standards :-
Educational Societies rendering service in the field of education;
Education of Scheduled Castes and Backward Classes.
Role of Local Bodies in the Field of Education;
Medium of instruction ;
Educational Set-up ;
(c) General Education :-
Primary and Basic Schools.
(d) Professional and Technical Education :-
Commercial Colleges, etc.
(e) Physical Education :-
National Fitness Corps.
National Cadet Corps.
Bharat Scouts and Guides.
(f) Schools for Cultivation of Fine Arts : Music, Dancing, Painting etc.
(g) Oriental Schools and Colleges.
(h) Education for the Handicapped : Deaf, Dumb and Blind.
(i) Adult Literacy, Social Education and Measures for the Diffusion of Culture among the Masses.
(j) Cultural and Literary Societies and Periodicals.
(k) Libraries and Museums.
MEDICAL AND PUBLIC HEALTH SYSTEM
(a) Public Health and Medical Facilities in the Early Times.
(b) Vital Statistics : General Standard of health or reflected by the statistics. Important causes of mortality.
(c) Diseases Common to the District.
(d) Medical and Public Health Services.
Hospitals, Primary Health Centres, Dispensaries
School Health Services.
Medical Aid during Floods.
Prevention of Adulteration of Foodstuffs.
(e) Private Hospitals and Nursing Homes.
(f) Medical and Public Health Education Institutions.
(i) Public Health and Sanitation in Urban Areas.
(ii) Rural Sanitation and Water Supply.
OTHER SOCIAL SERVICE
(a) Labour Welfare
Subsideised Industrial Housing Scheme
Labour Welfare Centres
(c) Advancement of Backward Classes and Tribes
Scheduled Casts and Backward Classes
Measures Adopted for Betterment of the
Conditions of the Scheduled Castes and
Social Welfare Schemes
Industrial Training Schemes
(d) Other Social Welfare Activities
Old Age Pension Scheme
(e) Public Trusts, Charitable Endowments and Muslim Wakfs
PUBLIC LIFE AND VOLUNTARY SOCIAL
(a) Representation of the District in the State and the Union Legislatures.
General Elections held under the Constitution of India
(b) Political Parties and Organisations
(c) Newspapers and Periodicals.
Newspapers and Periodicals Published in the
District and their Importance.
Newspapers and Periodicals Published outs-
ide but in Fairly Large Circulation in the
(d) Voluntary Social Service Organisations
General Welfare Institutions.
Organistions of National or International
PLACES OF INTEREST
All plaes of historical and tourist interest , pilgrim centres, commercial and trading centres, and other important places.
Note – The names should be arranged in a strictly alphabatical order.
17.3 Map, charts and photographs To add to the utility and interest of the District Gazetters, a small scale general map of the district 1 c.m. = 2.5344 k.m. (4 miles to the inch), charts and photographs of important objects should be provided therein.
17.4 Printing and Publication - On completion, the draft of the Gazetteer will be submitted to the Government of India for scrutiny and approval. In the light of the suggestions of the Government of India, necessary additions and alterations will be made in it.
Thereafter, the Gazetteer will be sent for printing to the Controller, Prnting and Stationary, Punjab, Chandigarh, who will arrange that proof sheets are forwarded to the State Editor, Gazetteers, for correction.
17.5 Collection and Compliation of material for Gazetteers - Whenever the preparation of a District Gazetteer is taken up, the State Editor, Gazetteers, will issue questionnaire/letters to the concerned district and State/Central Authorities and knowledgeable persons and institutions for supplying the necessary information. Information will also be collected personally by the State Editor, Gazetteers, and his staff from departmental reports and other Government publications, relevant books, periodicals and newspapers and by visiting place of interest.